Neoplasia refers to various types of growths including non-cancerous or benign tumours, precancerous growths, carcinoma in situ and malignant or cancerous tumours.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of short-lived, highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can induce DNA damage and affect the DNA damage response (DDR).


A family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons. They belong to a class of growth factors; secreted proteins that can signal certain cells to survive, differentiate or grow.


Small protein-like molecules used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are neuronal signalling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and the body in specific ways

endogenous reactive oxygen species

The main endogenous source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mitochondria which produce reactive oxygen species continuously. The main mitochondrial function is energy production.

cellular reduction oxidation balance

Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.

S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin.

TEWL test

The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or skin surface vapour loss is a good indicator of the integrity of the skin barrier function which inherently refers to the skin’s ability to retain moisture…. There are a range of instruments, most of which provide results in g/m2/hour, which measure TEWL.


The epigenome is a multitude of chemical compounds that can tell the genome what to do. The human genome is the complete assembly of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – about 3 billion base pairs – that makes each individual unique.


The inside of any tube, such as a blood vessel, an air passage (bronchus) or the intestine.

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