C. acnes

Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Proprionibacterium acnes or P. acnes) is the relatively slow-growing, typically aerotolerant anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium (rod) linked to the skin condition of acne.


The disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.

adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune response is more complex than the innate. The antigen first must be processed and recognized. Once an antigen has been recognized, the adaptive immune system creates an army of immune cells specifically designed to attack that antigen. Adaptive immunity also includes a “memory” that makes future responses against a specific antigen more …

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innate immune system

Nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body. The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of the antigen.


A small blister or pimple on the skin containing pus.


A small pimple or swelling on the skin, often forming part of a rash.


A condition in which widened venules (tiny blood vessels) cause threadlike red lines or patterns on the skin. These patterns, or telangiectases, form gradually and often in clusters. They’re sometimes known as “spider veins” because of their fine and weblike appearance.


A skin disorder characterized by a large, red, bumpy or bulbous nose. It can occur as part of phymatous rosacea. The exact cause of rhinophyma is unknown, but it’s considered a subtype of severe rosacea.


Neoplasia refers to various types of growths including non-cancerous or benign tumours, precancerous growths, carcinoma in situ and malignant or cancerous tumours.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of short-lived, highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can induce DNA damage and affect the DNA damage response (DDR).

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